pISSN: 1976-4251
eISSN: 2233-4998
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INFORMATION FOR AUTHORS

Carbon Letters, the official journal of the Korean Carbon Society, publishes original research on all aspects of carbon science, engineering, and technology, which has not been or will not be published elsewhere. It is a quarterly journal published in March, June, September, and December.

RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION ETHICS
Research published in Carbon Letters must have followed institutional, national, and international guidelines. For the policies on research and publication ethics that are not stated in these instructions, the Guidelines on Good Publication Practice (http://www.publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines) should be followed.
Authorship
An author is one who has made a significant contribution to the overall design and execution of the experiments; therefore, Carbon Letters deems all authors responsible for the entire paper. Assistants should not be listed as authors, but may be recognized in the Acknowledgements section.
Originality and Duplicate Publication
All submitted manuscripts should be original. While a manuscript is under review, the author should not submit it to other scientific journals for publication. No part of the accepted manuscript should be duplicated in other scientific journals without the permission of the Editorial Board. If duplicate publication related to the papers of this journal is detected, the authors will be announced in this journal, their institutes will be informed, and there will be penalties for the authors.
Conflict of Interest Statement
The corresponding author must inform the editor of any potential conflicts of interest that could influence the authors' interpretation of the data. Examples of potential conflicts of interest are financial support from or connections to companies, political pressure from interest groups, and academically related issues. In particular, all sources of funding applicable to the study should be explicitly stated.


COPYRIGHTS
By submitting an article for possible publication, authors are expected to agree to the 'Transfer of Copyright,' should the article be selected for publication. The transfer of copyright covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints, photographic reproductions, microform, or any other reproduction of similar nature, and includes the right to adapt the article for use in conjunction with computer systems and programs, including publication in machine-readable form and incorporation in retrieval systems.


TYPES OF MANUSCRIPTS
Carbon Letters accept original articles, communications, notes, and reviews. Original articles should be comprehensive reports of significant results or conclusions. Communications should be preliminary reports of unusual urgency, significance, and interest. A more complete article may be published at a later date. A note deals with a limited subject that requires no further elaboration in the future. Reviews should be short, critical surveys of progress in limited fields of carbon research during the previous 5-10 years and should contain new and important information on the subject.


MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION
Manuscripts should be submitted, typewritten (or reproduced on a high-quality printer) on A4 or letter-sized paper, one side only, with adequate margins or by e-mail to the Editorial Office of the Carbon Letters. Good quality printouts using Times New Roman 12 point are required. The entire manuscript (including abstract, references, tables, and figure legends) should be double-spaced. All pages should be numbered consecutively. References, tables, figure captions, schemes, and figures should be placed in that order, at the end of the paper. Authors should write their manuscripts in clear, concise British or American English.
Cover Letter
A cover letter must accompany every submission and include a rationale for consideration by Carbon Letters. The cover letter should list the authors and their affiliations, give the manuscript title, and provide contact information for all authors. A mailing address, e-mail address, and phone and fax numbers should be provided when applicable. During the review process, prior to publication, all e-mail notifications will be sent to the corresponding author. The corresponding author will also be sent correspondence after publication; this author is marked with an asterisk on the title page of the manuscript.
Reviewer List
Authors are required to provide names and contact information (affiliation and e-mail address) of at least two experts in the field as possible reviewers for the manuscript. The Editors try to use at least one reviewer from this list and to comply with special requests. However, this cannot be ensured; for example, specific reviewers may not be available. No one who may have a conflict of interest in reviewing your manuscript, such as former advisers, students, or recent collaborators, should be suggested as a potential reviewer.
Resubmission of Rejected Manuscript
If a manuscript is rejected, the author should read the reviews carefully; it probably means that another journal would be more appropriate for the paper. When submitting a revised manuscript to Carbon Letters, the cover letter must indicate that it is a revision of a previous manuscript and provide the old manuscript number. The letter should state how the manuscript has been changed compared with the original; a detailed list of responses to each of the comments of the reviewers or convincing reasons for declining to do so should be included with the letter. An author who strongly believes that the paper was not judged fairly should explain why in the cover letter.


PEER REVIEW AND PROOFS
The acceptance criteria for all papers are based on the quality and originality of the research and its scientific significance. An initial decision will normally be made within 4 weeks of receipt of a manuscript, and the reviewers' comments are sent to the corresponding authors by e-mail. Revised manuscripts must be submitted online by the corresponding author. Failure to resubmit the revised manuscript within 4 weeks of the editorial decision is regarded as a withdrawal. The publishers reserve the right to charge for any amendments made at the proof stage (other than printers' errors) since the insertion or deletion of a single word may necessitate the resetting of whole paragraphs.


STRUCTURE OF THE MANUSCRIPT
Title Page
The title page should include the following items: manuscript type (e.g., original article, communication, review, etc.), title, full names and institutional affiliations for all authors, e-mail address for the corresponding author, and running head (a shortened title of less than 50 characters and spaces). The name of the corresponding author to whom inquiries about the paper may be addressed should be marked with an asterisk.
Title
The title should be specific and informative. It should be brief but should define the subject of the paper: a 15-word title is too long. If trade names are used, generic names should be given in parentheses. Mentioning key concepts in the title makes it more likely that readers will be able to find the article in a literature search.
Authorship
The first name, middle initial(s), and last name of each author should be listed without professional and official titles. The complete mailing address(es) where the work was performed should be listed. When the present address of an author is different, the new contact information should be provided in a footnote. An e-mail address for the corresponding author should be included.
Abstract And Keywords
An abstract should be provided for all articles, communications, notes, and reviews. Abstracts should be no longer than 200 words and explain briefly the reason for the work, the significant results, and conclusions. At the end of the abstract, a maximum of 5 keywords or phrases should be given.
Text
The manuscript will generally include an Introduction, Experimental, Results and Discussion, and Conclusions, but some manuscripts (e.g., reviews) may follow a somewhat different format. Sections should be given Arabic numbers with subsections numbered using the decimal system. For example:
1. Introduction
2. Experimental
2.1. Sample preparation
2.1.1. Sample modification
Roman numerals are not used. The Editors reserve the right to combine sections when subdivisions have been used to excess. The authors should assume readers to be professionals who are not necessarily experts in the subject of the paper; therefore, acronyms should be spelled out on first use in the abstract and again on first use in the body of the paper.
Introduction
The purpose and significance of the research should be stated clearly and put into the context of earlier work in the area. A complete survey of the literature should not be attempted. If a recent article has summarized work on the subject, that article should be cited without repeating its individual citations.
Experimental
The Experimental section should provide a clear, unambiguous description of materials, methods, and equipment in sufficient detail to permit repetition of the work elsewhere. Details of procedures that are common knowledge to those in the field or that the authors have published previously should be omitted. A brief mention of published procedures may be included; details should be left to the literature cited.
Results and discussion
In this section, the authors should state the key findings and discuss them, postulate explanations for data, elucidate models, and compare results with those of other studies. The discussion should be complete but concise. Irrelevant comparisons or contrasts and speculations unsupported by the new information presented in the paper should be avoided. The results and discussion may be combined or separated.
Conclusions
The conclusion should be a brief paragraph that summarizes the findings presented.
References
Full reference information should be provided for all literature cited in the text in a list following the main manuscript. It is the responsibility of authors to ensure the accuracy of references. References to the paper should be numbered in one consecutive series. References should be typed in the format of Carbon Letters and cited in the text by numbers in square brackets. References that are 'in press' can only be listed if they have been assigned a DOI. DOI numbers are helpful but not mandatory unless that is the only identifying information for an article in press or published online. Reference information should be listed as follows:
Journal article
1. Lee SW, Lee HY, Jang SY, Jo SM, Lee HS, Lee S. Tensile properties and morphology of carbon fibers stabilized by plasma treatment. Carbon Lett, 12, 16 (2011). doi: 10.3333/ cl0001.
2. Florica Adriana Nicolescu FL, Jerca VV, Vuluga DM, Vasilescu DS. Polym Bull, 65, 905 (2010).
Book
3. Do DD. Adsorption Analysis: Equilibria and Kinetics, Imperial College Press, London, 205 (1998).
Book chapter
4. Park SJ, Kim BJ. Studies on Solid State NMR and Surface Energetics of Silicas for Improving Filler-Elastomer Interactions in Nanocomposites. In: Thomas S, Stephen R, ed. Rubber Nanocomposites: Preparation, Properties and Applications, Wiley, New York, 325 (2011).
Paper in published proceedings
5. Marsden BJ. IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Gas Turbine Power Conversion Systems for Modular HTGRs, Palo Alto, CA, 174 (2000).
Thesis
6. Masson JF. Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors for Biochemical and Chemical Monitoring, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, PhD Thesis (2005).
Website
7. Carbon and Electrospun Nanostructures. Available from: http://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2010/0310446.html.
Tables & Figures
Sequences of tables, charts, and schemes should be numbered with Arabic numerals.
Tables
Tables should be included at the appropriate point in the text. Footnotes to tables should be typed below the table and should be referred to by superscript lowercase letters. Tables should not duplicate results presented elsewhere in the manuscript, e.g., in graphs. Tables should be furnished with appropriate titles of one phrase or sentence; details or definitions should be placed in footnotes. Tables may be created using a word processor's text mode or table format feature. The latter is preferred. Ensure that each data entry is in its own table cell. If the text mode is used, separate columns with a single tab and use a hard return at the end of each row.
Figures
Charts, diagrams, schemes, and photographs are all to be referred to as Figures. Original drawings and photographs should be attached to the end of the main document and the authors should indicate by text or marginal notations in the typescript where the figures are to be inserted. For the production of the paper we require high resolution graphic files in TIFF or EPS format. Graphics should have the following minimum resolution: black-and-white line art, 1200 dpi; grayscale, 600; and color, 300 dpi. For best results, illustrations should be submitted in the actual size at which they should appear. Lettering should be of a size that can be read after reduction. The axes should be labeled outside a graph. Legends should correctly and sufficiently describe the contents of a figure. Gray tones reproduce poorly and should not be used as background or as data points. For color images, yellow is often difficult to see on a white background.
Nomenclature
Authors should use systematic names similar to those used by the Chemical Abstracts Service or the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Chemical Abstracts (CA) nomenclature rules are contained in Appendix VI of the current CA Index Guide. For specialized nomenclature, a nomenclature section should be included at the end of the paper, giving definitions and dimensions for all terms. If subscripts and superscripts are necessary, they should be placed accurately. Trivial names should be avoided. Trade names should be defined at the point of first use and registered trade names should begin with a capital letter.
Formulas and Equations
Chemical formulas should correspond to the ACS Style Guide, 3rd ed., 2006. Chemical equations should be balanced and numbered consecutively along with mathematical equations. Mathematical arguments should be as brief as possible.
Units
Standard metric units should be used for describing length, height, weight, and volume. The unit of temperature should be given in degrees Celsius (°C). All others should be in terms of the International System of Units (SI). The unit billion (109 in America, 1012 in Europe) is ambiguous and must not be used. All units must be preceded by one space except percentage (%) and temperature (°C).